South Africa faces many challenges. While some of these are related to external
factors such as low global growth rates due to the global financial crisis of
2008–09, many of the challenges stem from long-term structural deficiencies.
These include a high unemployment rate, low savings rates, and stark wealth and
These issues are not new; they have been highlighted in the National Development
Plan 2030, which identifies the principal challenge for South Africa as ‘to roll back
poverty and inequality. Combating this challenge will require ‘a combination of
increasing employment, higher incomes through productivity growth, a social wage,
and good quality public services.